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论证过程分为三步，第一步，公司、个人以及政府为什么对污染负金钱上的责任（assume financial responsibility for the pollution）,显然，公司和个人是污染的主要制造者（main waste producer），所以可以谈到污染环境的个人行为或者公司行为(companies take advantage of natural resources for profitable or lucrative purposes OR private cars discharge amounts of pollutants into the air)；但是考生比较难想到的是“为什么政府要对污染负责任”，因为“给公民提供一个干净健康的环境是政府的份内责任”。第二步，题干中的第二个关键词“pay for”，支付了之后，对公司和个人而言，罚金起到了警戒和威慑力的作用，令他们不会重蹈覆辙(penalty serves as a deterrent to curb the pollution )；对政府而言，一是税收治理环境污染；二是投资新能源的开发，从根源上解决污染问题(governments need to be dedicated to transforming waste into renewable material by investing resources in it )。第三步，对自己的逻辑框架进行汉译英，加上连词，理清句与句之间的关系，文章成型。
Waste is a direct product from pollution caused by companies and individuals. Either companies and individuals or governments take the financial obligation for the pollution. In my opinion, both private and public sectors should be responsible for this.
Those who advocate that private sectors and individuals bear the cost base their statement on the grounds that both of them are the main waste producer of pollution, i.e. they pour amounts of toxic chemicals into the air, soils and rivers. Specifically speaking, private cars, which could have been beneficial to the convenience of all human beings, are partially to blame for the air pollution. These vehicles discharge amount of pollutants into the air. Also, these self-centered companies sometimes exploit natural resources such as forests, water land and agricultural lands, beyond all their limits just to increase the profit. If these companies are not obliged to share the amount of money, which is required to curb pollutions, they will become more short-sighted in terms of making more money without even caring about the impact on climate change and environment. Therefore, the penalty for their pollution serves as a deterrent to control the total amount of waste produced by private sector and individuals. Meanwhile, the clean-up fees exert a great influence on them to raise environmental awareness.
The government still bears the cost of pollution by taking advantage of the tax levied by public sector to look for scientific ways to alleviate the environmental problems. Undoubtedly, the government has more resources, including specialists and relevant expertise, to deal with large-scale projects. Furthermore, the relevant departments need to be dedicated to transforming waste into recycled or useful materials, thus meeting the need of sustainable development. The long-term solution could strike a balance between environment and economic development.
To sum up, all the social members should bear the bills to create a clean environment. It is the cooperation and coordination that facilitates a green environment and a sustainable development of one after another generation.
Those who advocate that private sectors and individuals bear the cost base their statement on the grounds that both of them are the main waste producer of pollution，i.e. they pour amounts of toxic chemicals into the air, soils and rivers.
本句话中，笔者运用一个定语从句以及一个同位语从句对题干的前半部分进行paraphrase，“advocate … bear the cost”修饰those（这些人支持公司和个人该对环境负责），整个长句子中的谓语部分为“base sth on”，同时，on the grounds that 为“……的原因”，而在这个修饰grounds的同位语从句中，i.e.为“in other words”，进行具体的解释。整句话的翻译即“有些人认为，公司和个人该对污染负责，他们持这种观点的原因是公司和个人是废品制造者，换句话说，他们排放大量有毒化学物质到空气、土壤和河流中。”